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Work for AT&T March 27, 2011

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For more information visit AT&T Careers.

AT&T and T-Mobile Merger March 21, 2011

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Yes it’s true it happened yesterday as announced by our executives on a Sunday. AT&T Inc. has agreed to buy T-Mobile USA for $39 billion, but the deal isn’t set to close until a year from now, and it will likely face tough regulatory scrutiny.

Here is the official announcement released by AT&T.

For more information, contact:
Brad Burns: +1 (214) 757-7616
Brunswick Group
Mike Buckley: +1 (214) 757-7616
Steve Lipin: +1 (212) 333-3810

Provides fast, efficient and certain solution to impending spectrum exhaust challenges facing AT&T and T-Mobile
USA in key markets due to explosive demand for mobile broadband

Enhances network capacity, output and quality in near term for both companies’ customers

AT&T commits to expand 4G LTE deployment to an additional 46.5 million Americans, including in rural, smaller
communities, for a total of 294 million or 95% of the U.S. population

Provides 4G LTE service for T-Mobile USA’s 34 million subscribers

More than $8 billion in incremental infrastructure spend by a U.S. company over seven years, enabling nation’s
high-tech industry, innovation and economic growth

Creates substantial value for AT&T shareholders through large, straightforward synergies

DALLAS, TEXAS AND BONN, GERMANY — March 20, 2011 — AT&T Inc. (NYSE: T) and Deutsche Telekom AG (FWB: DTE) today announced that they have entered into a definitive agreement under which AT&T will acquire T-Mobile USA from Deutsche Telekom in a cash-and-stock transaction currently valued at approximately $39 billion. The agreement has been approved by the Boards of Directors of both companies.
AT&T’s acquisition of T-Mobile USA provides an optimal combination of network assets to add capacity sooner than any alternative, and it provides an opportunity to improve network quality in the near term for both companies’ customers. In addition, it provides a fast, efficient and certain solution to the impending exhaustion of wireless spectrum in some markets, which limits both companies’ ability to meet the ongoing explosive demand for mobile broadband.

With this transaction, AT&T commits to a significant expansion of robust 4G LTE (Long Term Evolution) deployment to 95 percent of the U.S. population to reach an additional 46.5 million Americans beyond current plans – including rural communities and small towns. This helps achieve the Federal CommunicationsCommission (FCC) and President Obama’s goals to connect “every part of America to the digital age.” T-Mobile
USA does not have a clear path to delivering LTE. “This transaction represents a major commitment to strengthen and expand critical infrastructure for our nation’s
future,” said Randall Stephenson, AT&T Chairman and CEO. “It will improve network quality, and it will bring advanced LTE capabilities to more than 294 million people. Mobile broadband networks drive economic opportunity everywhere, and they enable the expanding high-tech ecosystem that includes device makers, cloud and content providers, app developers, customers, and more. During the past few years, America’s high-tech industry has delivered innovation at unprecedented speed, and this combination will accelerate its continued growth.”

Stephenson continued,  “This transaction delivers significant customer, shareowner and public benefits that are available at this level only from the combination of these two companies with complementary network technologies, spectrum positions and operations. We are confident in our ability to execute a seamless integration, and with additional spectrum and network capabilities, we can better meet our customers’ current demands, build for the future and help achieve the President’s goals for a high-speed, wirelessly connected America.”

Deutsche Telekom Chairman and CEO René Obermann said, “After evaluating strategic options for T-Mobile USA, I am confident that AT&T is the best partner for our customers, shareholders and the mobile broadband ecosystem. Our common network technology makes this a logical combination and provides an efficient path to gaining the spectrum and network assets needed to provide T-Mobile customers with 4G LTE and the best devices. Also, the transaction returns significant value to Deutsche Telekom shareholders and allows us to retain exposure to the U.S. market.”

As part of the transaction, Deutsche Telekom will receive an equity stake in AT&T that, based on the terms of the agreement, would give Deutsche Telekom an ownership interest in AT&T of approximately 8 percent. A Deutsche Telekom representative will join the AT&T Board of Directors.

Competition and Pricing
The U.S. wireless industry is one of the most fiercely competitive markets in the world and will remain so after this deal. The U.S. is one of the few countries in the world where a large majority of consumers can choose from five or more wireless providers in their local market. For example, in 18 of the top 20 U.S. local markets, there are five or more providers. Local market competition is escalating among larger carriers, low-cost carriers and several regional wireless players with nationwide service plans. This intense competition is only increasing with the build-out of new 4G networks and the emergence of new market entrants.

The competitiveness of the market has directly benefited consumers. A 2010 report from the U.S. General Accounting Office (GAO) states the overall average price (adjusted for inflation) for wireless services declined 50 percent from 1999 to 2009, during a period which saw five major wireless mergers.

Addresses wireless spectrum challenges facing AT&T, T-Mobile USA, their customers, and U.S. policymakers
This transaction quickly provides the spectrum and network efficiencies necessary for AT&T to address impending spectrum exhaust in key markets driven by the exponential growth in mobile broadband traffic on its network. AT&T’s mobile data traffic grew 8,000 percent over the past four years and by 2015 it is expected to be eight to 10 times what it was in 2010. Put another way, all of the mobile traffic volume AT&T carried during 2010 is estimated to be carried in just the first six to seven weeks of 2015. Because AT&T has led the U.S. in smartphones, tablets and e-readers – and as a result, mobile broadband – it requires additional spectrum before new spectrum will become available. In the long term, the entire industry will need additional spectrum to address the explosive growth in demand for mobile broadband.

Improves service quality for U.S. wireless customers
AT&T and T-Mobile USA customers will see service improvements – including improved voice quality – as a result of additional spectrum, increased cell tower density and broader network infrastructure. At closing, AT&T will immediately gain cell sites equivalent to what would have taken on average five years to build without the transaction, and double that in some markets. The combination will increase AT&T’s network density by approximately 30 percent in some of its most populated areas, while avoiding the need to construct additional cell towers. This transaction will increase spectrum efficiency to increase capacity and output, which not only improves service, but is also the best way to ensure competitive prices and services in a market where demand is extremely high and spectrum is in short supply.

Expands 4G LTE deployment to 95 percent of U.S. population – urban and rural areas
This transaction will directly benefit an additional 46.5 million Americans – equivalent to the combined populations of the states of New York and Texas – who will, as a result of this combination, have access to AT&T’s latest 4G LTE technology. In terms of area covered, the transaction enables 4G LTE deployment to an additional 1.2 million square miles, equivalent to 4.5 times the size of the state of Texas. Rural and smaller communities will substantially benefit from the expansion of 4G LTE deployment, increasing the competitiveness of the businesses and entrepreneurs in these areas.

Increases AT&T’s investment in the U.S.
The acquisition will increase AT&T’s infrastructure investment in the U.S. by more than $8 billion over seven years. Expansion of AT&T’s 4G LTE network is an important foundation for the next wave of innovation and growth in mobile broadband, ensuring the U.S. continues to lead the world in wireless technology and availability. It makes T-Mobile USA, currently a German-owned U.S. telecom network, part of a U.S.-based company.

An impressive, combined workforce
Bringing AT&T and T-Mobile USA together will create an impressive workforce that is best positioned to compete in today’s global economy. Post-closing, AT&T intends to tap into the significant knowledge and expertise held by employees of both AT&T and T-Mobile USA to succeed. AT&T is the only major U.S. wireless company with a union workforce, offering leading wages, benefits, training and development for employees. The combined company will continue to have a strong employee and operations base in the Seattle area.

Consistent with AT&T’s track record of value-enhancing acquisitions
AT&T has a strong track record of executing value-enhancing acquisitions and expects to create substantial value for shareholders through large, straightforward synergies with a run rate of more than $3 billion, three years after closing onward (excluding integration costs). The value of the synergies is expected to exceed the purchase price of $39 billion. Revenue synergies come from opportunities to increase smartphone penetration and data average revenue per user, with cost savings coming from network efficiencies, subscriber and support savings, reduced churn and avoided capital and spectrum expenditures.
The transaction will enhance margin potential and improve the company’s long-term revenue growth potential as it benefits from a more robust mobile broadband platform for new services.

Additional financial information
The $39 billion purchase price will include a cash payment of $25 billion with the balance to be paid using AT&T common stock, subject to adjustment. AT&T has the right to increase the cash portion of the purchase price by up to $4.2 billion with a corresponding reduction in the stock component, so long as Deutsche Telekom receives at least a 5 percent equity ownership interest in AT&T.
The number of AT&T shares issued will be based on the AT&T share price during the 30-day period prior to closing, subject to a 7.5 percent collar; there is a one-year lock-up period during which Deutsche Telekom cannot sell shares.
The cash portion of the purchase price will be financed with new debt and cash on AT&T’s balance sheet. AT&T has an 18-month commitment for a one-year unsecured bridge term facility underwritten by J.P. Morgan for $20 billion. AT&T assumes no debt from T-Mobile USA or Deutsche Telekom and continues to have a strong balance sheet.
The transaction is expected to be earnings (excluding non-cash amortization and integration costs) accretive in the third year after closing. Pro-forma for 2010, this transaction increases AT&T’s total wireless revenues from $58.5 billion to nearly $80 billion, and increases the percentage of AT&T’s total revenues from wireless, wireline data and managed services to approximately 80 percent.
This transaction will allow for sufficient cash flow to support AT&T’s dividend. AT&T has increased its dividend for 27 consecutive years, a matter decided by AT&T’s Board of Directors.

The acquisition is subject to regulatory approvals, a reverse breakup fee in certain circumstances, and other customary regulatory and other closing conditions. The transaction is expected to close in approximately 12 months.

Greenhill & Co., J.P. Morgan and Evercore Partners acted as financial advisors and Sullivan & Cromwell LLP, Arnold & Porter, and Crowell & Moring provided legal advice to AT&T.

Conference Call/Webcast
On Monday, March 21, 2011, at 8 a.m. ET, AT&T Inc. will host a live video and audio webcast presentation regarding its announcement to acquire T-Mobile USA. Links to the webcast and accompanying documents will be available on AT&T’s Investor Relations website. Please log in 15 minutes ahead of time to test your browser and register for the call.

For dial-in access, please dial +1 (888) 517-2464 within the U.S. or +1 (630) 827-6816 outside the U.S. after 7:30 a.m. ET. Enter passcode 8442095# to join or ask the conference call operator for the AT&T Investor Relations event.
The webcast will be available for replay on AT&T’s Investor Relations website on March 21, 2011, starting at 12:30 p.m. ET through April 21, 2011. An archive of the conference call will also be available during this time period. To access the recording, please dial +1 (877) 870-5176 within the U.S. or +1 (858) 384-5517 outside the U.S. and enter reservation code 29362481#.

Transaction Website
For more information on the transaction, including background information and factsheets, visit www.MobilizeEverything.com.

About AT&T
AT&T Inc. (NYSE:T) is a premier communications holding company. Its subsidiaries and affiliates – AT&T operating companies – are the providers of AT&T services in the United States and around the world. With a powerful array of network resources that includes the nation’s fastest mobile broadband network, AT&T is a leading provider of wireless, Wi-Fi, high speed Internet, voice and cloud-based services. A leader in mobile broadband and emerging 4G capabilities, AT&T also offers the best wireless coverage worldwide of any U.S. carrier, offering the most wireless phones that work in the most countries. It also offers advanced TV services under the AT&T U-verse® and AT&T │DIRECTV brands. The company’s suite of IP-based business communications services is one of the most advanced in the world. In domestic markets, AT&T Advertising Solutions and AT&T Interactive are known for their leadership in local search and advertising.
Additional information about AT&T Inc. and the products and services provided by AT&T subsidiaries and affiliates is available at http://www.att.com. This AT&T news release and other announcements are available at http://www.att.com/newsroom and as part of an RSS feed at www.att.com/RSS. Or follow our news at @ATT.

About Deutsche Telekom
Deutsche Telekom is one of the world’s leading integrated telecommunications companies with around 129 million mobile customers, approximately 36 million fixed-network lines and more than 16 million broadband lines (as of December 31, 2010). The Group provides products and services for the fixed network, mobile communications, the Internet and IPTV for consumers, and ICT solutions for business customers and corporate customers. Deutsche Telekom is present in over 50 countries and has around 247,000 employees worldwide. The Group generated revenues of EUR 62.4 billion in the 2010 financial year – more than half of it outside Germany (as of December 31, 2010).

About T-Mobile USA
Based in Bellevue, Wash., T-Mobile USA, Inc. is the U.S. wireless operation of Deutsche Telekom AG. By the end of the fourth quarter of 2010, approximately 129 million mobile customers were served by the mobile communication segments of the Deutsche Telekom group – 33.7 million by T-Mobile USA – all via GSM and UMTS, the world’s most widely used digital wireless standards. Today, T-Mobile operates America’s largest 4G network, and is delivering a compelling 4G experience across a broad lineup of leading devices in more places than competing 4G services. T-Mobile USA’s innovative wireless products and services empower and enable people to stay connected and productive while mobile. Multiple independent research studies continue to rank T-Mobile USA as a leader in customer care and customer satisfaction. For more information, please visit http://www.T-Mobile.com. T-Mobile is a federally registered trademark of Deutsche Telekom AG. For further information on Deutsche Telekom, please visit www.telekom.de/investor-relations.

Cautionary Language Concerning Forward-Looking Statements
Information set forth in this news release contains financial estimates and other forward-looking statements that are subject to risks and uncertainties, and actual results may differ materially. In addition to these factors, there are risks and uncertainties associated with the T-Mobile business, the pendency of the T-Mobile acquisition and the ability to realize the benefits of the integration of the T-Mobile business. A discussion of factors that may affect future results is contained in AT&T’s filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission. AT&T disclaims any obligation to update or revise statements contained in this news release based on new information or otherwise. This news release may contain certain non-GAAP financial measures. Reconciliations between the non-GAAP financial measures and the GAAP financial measures are available on the company’s website at www.att.com/investor.relations.

© 2011 AT&T Intellectual Property. All rights reserved. Mobile broadband not available in all areas. AT&T, the AT&T logo and all other marks contained herein are trademarks of AT&T Intellectual Property and/or AT&T affiliated companies.

Cloud Computing – Anywhere, Anytime Computing Platform February 2, 2011

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Diagram showing overview of cloud computing in...

Image via Wikipedia

Cloud computing is location-independent computing, whereby shared servers provide resources, software, and data to computers and other devices on demand, as with the electricity grid. Cloud computing is a natural evolution of the widespread adoption of virtualization, service-oriented architecture and utility computing. Details are abstracted from consumers, who no longer have need for expertise in, or control over, the technology infrastructure “in the cloud” that supports them.

Cloud computing describes a new supplement, consumption, and delivery model for IT services based on the Internet, and it typically involves over-the-Internet provision of dynamically scalable and often virtualized resources. It is a byproduct and consequence of the ease-of-access to remote computing sites provided by the Internet. This frequently takes the form of web-based tools or applications that users can access and use through a web browser as if it were a program installed locally on their own computer.

The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) provides a somewhat more objective and specific definition here.The term “cloud” is used as a metaphor for the Internet, based on the cloud drawing used in the past to represent the telephone network, and later to depict the Internet in computer network diagrams as an abstraction of the underlying infrastructure it represents. Typical cloud computing providers deliver common business applications online that are accessed from another Web service or software like a Web browser, while the software and data are stored on servers.

Most cloud computing infrastructures consist of services delivered through common centers and built on servers. Clouds often appear as single points of access for consumers’ computing needs. Commercial offerings are generally expected to meet quality of service (QoS) requirements of customers, and typically include service level agreements (SLAs).

Read more http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cloud_computing

Scribd – A new way in online social reading January 27, 2011

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Scribd is the world’s largest social reading and publishing company. We’ve made it easy to share and discover entertaining, informative and original written content across the web and mobile devices. Our vision is to liberate the written word, to connect people with the information and ideas that matter most to them.

Where the World Comes to Read

Think of Scribd (pronounced “skribbed”) as the largest book club on the planet — except that anyone can join the conversation on any topic imaginable: vampire fan fiction, European travel, the latest research in neuroscience, even crossword puzzles.

Reading long-form written content (books, magazines, documents) has been a solitary experience for too long, but technologies now exist to bring people together through their shared interests. Every day, millions of people contribute to the conversations happening on Scribd by commenting, rating and Readcasting to friends on Scribd, Facebook and Twitter.

Scribd has converted over a billion pages of written works into web pages, which means that it’s also easy to access what you’re reading from any web-enabled mobile device like your iPhone, iPad, Android smartphone or even Amazon Kindle. In addition, most Scribd content is available to download or print, giving readers even more choices for reading and sharing.

Democratizing Publishing

Scribd’s patent-pending conversion technology has democratized the publishing process. Now, anyone can instantly upload and transform any file — including PDF, Word and PowerPoint — into a web document that’s discoverable through search engines, shared on social networks and read on billions of mobile devices.

Scribd is where your content finds an audience. Millions of people come to Scribd every day to read and discuss business presentations, poetry, magazines and the latest best-sellers. Scribd’s content publishers include the biggest names in book publishing, media, government and entertainment. Many more are people just like you.

Scribd acts as a hub for all your written content — where you can upload, organize and distribute your work on the web and mobile devices. Our publisher-friendly tools include collections, shelves, Readcasting and statistics. To learn more about how to get the most out of your Scribd experience, read our Scribd 101 series or Partner page.

Re-Writing the Rules

Scribd has maximized the power of the web to bring readers and creators of written content together, regardless of physical or format constraints. History has witnessed only a handful of major innovations in publishing and reading: cave drawings, the invention of written language, the printing press, the Internet. We’re experiencing another pivotal moment in this history. Join us for the next revolution.


E911 – Saves Life! December 30, 2010

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Enhanced 9-1-1.

Enhanced 911, E-911 or E911 is a North American telecommunications based system that automatically associates a physical address with the calling party’s telephone number, and routes the call to the most appropriate Public Safety Answering Point (PSAP) for that address. The caller’s address and information is displayed to the calltaker immediately upon call arrival. This provides emergency responders with the location of the emergency without the person calling for help having to provide it. This is often useful in times of fires, break-ins, kidnapping, and other events where communicating one’s location is difficult or impossible.

The system only works in North America if the emergency telephone number 911 is called. Calls made to other telephone numbers, even though they may be listed as an emergency telephone number, may not permit this feature to function correctly. Outside Canada and the United States this type of facility is often called caller location, though its implementation is dependent on how the telephone network processes emergency calls. Typical architecture diagram:



The first 911 system was installed in Haleyville, Alabama, in February 1968 as a way to quickly connect a subscriber to the local police station. This system did not identify the caller but did provide a means to access emergency services that had not previously been available. This system was quickly adapted and improved by other telephone companies to become the E911 system which provides both caller location and identification. A pioneering system was in place in Chicago by the mid-1970s, providing both police and fire departments access to the source location of emergency calls. Enhanced 911 is currently deployed in most metropolitan areas in the United States and Canada.

Public safety answering point (PSAP)

The final destination of an E911 call (where the 911 operator sits) is a Public Safety Answering Point (PSAP). There may be multiple PSAPs within the same exchange or one PSAP may cover multiple exchanges. The territories (Emergency Service Zone) covered by a single PSAP is based on the dispatch and response arrangements for the fire, police, and medical services for a particular area. Most PSAPs have a regional Emergency Service Number (ESN), a number identifying the PSAP.

The Caller Location Information (CLI) provided is normally integrated into emergency dispatch center’s computer-assisted dispatch (CAD) system. Early CAD systems provided text display of the caller’s address, call history and available emergency response resources. In 1994, working in cooperation with the emergency response agencies of Covington, KY, 911 Mapping Systems, Inc.[1] founded in 1992 by Robert Graham Thomas Jr.,[2] implemented the first real-time on-screen E911 street map display to highlight the caller’s position, nearest available emergency responders and other relevant information such as fire hydrants, hazardous materials and/or other data maintained by the city. Shortly thereafter, integrated mapping became a standard and integral part of all CAD systems and continues to evolve alongside 911 response technology. For Wireline E911, the location is an address. For Wireless E911, the location is a coordinate. Not all PSAPs have the Wireless and Wireline systems integrated.

Interconnection details

Each telephone company (local exchange carrier, or LEC) has at least two redundant DS0-level (that is, 64 kbit/s, or voice quality) trunks connecting each host office telephone switch to each call center. These trunks are either directly connected to the center or they are connected to a telephone company central switch that intelligently distributes calls to the PSAPs. These special switches are often known as 911 Selective Routers. Their use is becoming increasingly more common as it simplifies the interconnection between newer ISUP/SS7-based host office switches and the many older PSAP systems.

If the PSAP receives calls from the telephone company on older analog trunks, they are usually Pulse driven circuits. These circuits are similar to traditional telephone lines, but are formatted to pass the calling party’s number (Automatic Number Identification, ANI). (For historical reasons, the PSAP will refer to these as CAMA circuits even though Centralized Automatic Message Accounting (CAMA) is actually a reference to the call log.)

If the PSAP receives calls on older-style digital trunks, they are specially formatted Multi-Frequency (MF) trunks that pass the calling party’s number (ANI) only. Some of the upgraded PSAPs can receive calls on ISUP trunks controlled by the SS7 protocol. In that case, the calling party’s number (ANI) is already present in the SS7 setup message. The Charge Number Parameter contains the ANI.

Wireline enhanced 911

When a call is placed to 911, the source of the call is recorded (allowed by special privacy legislation). The source number is used to look up the ESN (phone number) of the appropriate call center (PSAP) in a database and connect the call.

Address information is not passed along by the public phone network; only the calling party’s phone number is passed. The PSAP uses the calling party number to look up the address in the Automatic Location Identification (ALI) database. The ALI database is secured and separate from the public phone network by design. It is generally maintained by the Incumbent Local Exchange Carrier (ILEC) under contract by the PSAP. Each ILEC has their own standards for the formatting of the database.

Most ALI databases have a companion database known as the MSAG, Master Street Address Guide. The MSAG describes the exact spelling of streets, street number ranges, and other address elements. When a new account is created, the address is looked up in the Master Street Address Guide to find the appropriate Emergency Service Number that 911 calls from that phone number should be routed to. Competitive local exchange carriers (CLEC) and other competing wireline carriers negotiate for access to the ALI database in their respective Interconnect Agreement with the ILEC. They populate the database using the ILEC MSAG as a guide.

ALI Failure is when the phone number is not passed or that the phone number is not in the ALI database. If this happens, the call is passed to the trunk group’s default ESN, which is a PSAP designated for this function. The PSAP operator must then ask the incoming call for their location and redirect them to the correct PSAP. The legal penalty in most states for ALI database lookup failure is limited to a requirement that the telephone company fix the database entry.

Wireless enhanced 911

The billing address associated with a cell phone is not necessarily the location to which emergency responders should be sent, since the device is portable. This means that locating the caller is more complicated, and there is a different set of legal requirements.


The U.S. Federal Communications Commission (FCC) has several requirements applicable to wireless or mobile telephones:[3]

Location information is not only transmitted to the call center for the purpose of sending emergency services to the scene of the incident, it is used by the wireless network operator to determine to which PSAP to route the call.


A second phase of Enhanced 911 service is to allow a wireless or mobile telephone to be located.

To locate a mobile telephone geographically, there are two general approaches. One is to use some form of radiolocation from the cellular network; the other is to use a Global Positioning System receiver built into the phone itself.

Radiolocation in cellular telephony uses base stations. Most often, this is done through triangulation between radio towers. The location of the caller or handset can be determined several ways:

The first two depend on a line of sight, which can be difficult or impossible in mountainous terrain or around skyscrapers. Location signatures actually work better in these conditions however. TDMA and GSM networks such as T-Mobile 2G use TDOA.[7] AT&T Mobility initially advocated TDOA, but changed to embedded GPS in 2006 for every GSM or UMTS voice-capable device due to improved accuracy.

CDMA networks tend to use handset-based radiolocation technologies, which are technically more similar to radionavigation. GPS is one of those technologies. Alltel, Verizon Wireless, T-Mobile 3G, and Sprint PCS use Assisted GPS.[7]

Hybrid solutions, needing both the handset and the network include:

Mobile phone users may also have a selection to permit location information to be sent to non-emergency phone numbers or data networks, so that it can help people who are simply lost or want other location-based services. By default, this selection is usually turned off, to protect privacy.

The 3GPP specified protocol for handset geolocation in GSM networks is called Radio Resource Location Protocol.

VoIP enhanced 911

As Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) technology matured, service providers began to interconnect VoIP with the public telephone network and marketed the VoIP service as a cheap replacement phone service. However, E911 regulations and legal penalties have severely hampered the more widespread adoption of VoIP: VoIP is much more flexible than land line phone service and there is no easy way to verify the physical location of a caller on a nomadic VoIP network at any given time (especially in the case of wireless networks), and so many providers offered services which specifically excluded 911 service so as to avoid the severe E-911 non-compliance penalties. VoIP services tried to improvise, such as routing 911 calls to the administrative phone number of the Public Safety Answering Point, adding on software to track phone locations, etc.[citation needed]

The Location Information Server is a service that is provided by an access network provider to provide location information to users of the network. To do this, it uses knowledge of network topology and a range of location determination techniques to locate devices that are attached to the network. The precise methods that are used to determine location are dependent on the type of access network and the information that can be obtained from the device.

Initially, the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) took a hands off approach to VoIP in order to let the service mature and also to facilitate competition in the telephony market.[8] In time, this problem reached the headlines of newspapers as individuals were unable to place emergency calls with their VoIP phones. In March 2005, Texas Attorney General Greg Abbott filed a lawsuit against Vonage for deceptive marketing practices by not making it clear that VoIP users had to actually sign up for E911 service.[9]

When FCC Chair Kevin Martin replaced FCC Chair Michael Powell, he immediately changed FCC’s hand’s off policy and moved to impose 911 obligations on VoIP service providers.[10] In 2005, Chair Martin moved FCC to require "interconnected VoIP services" to begin to provide 911 service and provide notice to their consumers concerning the 911 limitations. The FCC announced that customers must respond to the E911 VoIP warning and those who do not have their service cut off on August 30, 2005. The FCC extended the deadline to September 28, 2005.[11] The E911 hookup may be directly with the Wireline E911 Network, indirectly through a third party such as a competitive local exchange carrier (CLEC), or by any other technical means. The FCC explained that they felt compelled to issue this mandate because of the public safety concerns.[12] Telco industry entrepreneur and blogger Jeff Pulver opined that this was an attempt by FCC Chair Martin to hinder telephony competition to AT&T.[13]

The 911 obligations were imposed only on "interconnected VoIP." The FCC defined "interconnected VoIP" as VoIP over broadband that interconnects with the public switch telephone network.[14] VoIP that is not interconnected, such as two individuals talking to each other over the Internet while playing computer games, does not fall under the obligation.

There are, however, complicated technological problems with implementing E911 with VoIP, which providers are attempting to solve. VoIP phones are on the Internet and nomadic; the geolocation of the individual placing the 911 call can be very difficult to determine. Service providers are attempting to phase in solutions through the I1, I2, and I3 phases. During I1, the 911 call was routed to the 911 administrative telephone lines without location information. During I2, VoIP services would participate in the public telephone networks location database for the location that is identified with that telephone number. During the I3 solution, VoIP service providers would have a true IP interconnection with Public Safety Answering Points and would be able to provide even more valuable information than the legacy 911 system. Where VoIP phones are mobile, geolocation has additional problems; VoIP service providers are seeking access to mobile phone location databases.[15][16][17] These solutions are being developed through the cooperation of the Voice on the Network Coalition and the National Emergency Number Association. Vonage has encouraged its customers to register the locations from which their 911 calls could be dialed with the local public safety answering point.[18] The FCC had continued to add more requirements and mandate a more sophisticated 911 function.[19]

VoIP services have noted an obstacle to full 911 interconnection; in order to interconnect with the Public Safety Answering Point, the VoIP service providers must interconnect with the 911 telephone trunk, which is owned and controlled by their competitors, the traditional fixed-line telephone carriers.[11] This resulted in the New and Emerging Technologies 911 Improvement Act of 2008 which granted interconnection rights to interconnected VoIP services.[20]

There are also other proposed features that are intended to allow telephone callers from large corporate telephone networks, on both traditional and VoIP PBXs, to be located down to the specific office on a particular floor of a building.

VoIP & 911 issues are also relevant to Telecom Relay Services utilized by individuals with disabilities.

911 address

A 911 address contains a uniform number, the street name, direction (if any) and the city. The address number is assigned usually by the grid of the existing community. Each county usually has their own guidelines on how the addressing is done, but for the most part National Emergency Number Association (NENA) guidelines are followed.[citation needed] These guidelines are expressed by the Master Street Address Guide (MSAG). The actual 911 addresses and associated phone numbers are put into the ALI database.

Address signage standards

In addition to upgrading communications systems, many counties and communities in the U.S. have implemented ordinances requiring property owners to standardize the display of house numbers on buildings and along streets and roadways, to allow emergency personnel to more easily locate a given address day or night, even in poor weather. These generally consist of reflective characters, at least 3 to 6 inches high, on a contrasting reflective background. It is necessary for the address number to be affixed to the building or to a separate structure such as a post, wall or fence, provided that such separate structure is located in front of the building and on the building’s side of the street. Compliant signage systems are often advertised as being "E911 compliant".[citation needed]

See also


  1. ^ "911 Mapping Systems, Inc". 911mapping.com. http://www.911mapping.com/web/index.html. Retrieved 2010-11-18.
  2. ^ "Obituary: Robert Thomas Jr., 911 Mapping CEO". Enquirer.com. 2002-12-25. http://www.enquirer.com/editions/2002/12/25/loc_otherobit25.html. Retrieved 2010-11-18.
  3. ^ "Wireless 911 Services". Consumer & Governmental Affairs Bureau. FCC.gov. http://www.fcc.gov/cgb/consumerfacts/wireless911srvc.html. Retrieved 2010-11-18.
  4. ^ "Sprint, Alltel, USC fined for missed e911 deadline". FierceWireless. 2007-08-31. http://www.fiercewireless.com/story/sprint-alltel-usc-fined-missed-e911-deadline/2007-08-31. Retrieved 2010-11-18.
  5. ^ "How accurate E911?". GPS World. Questex Media Group, Inc.. November 2007. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0BPW/is_11_18/ai_n27458948/?tag=content;col1. Retrieved 2010-11-17. Network-based technology:100 meters for 67% of calls and 300 meters for 95% of calls. Handset-based technologies: 50 meters for 67% of calls and 150 meters for 95% of calls.
  6. ^ "Carriers push E-911 lawsuit in court despite winning deadline extension". RCR Wireless News. 2008-03-14. http://www.rcrwireless.com/article/20080314/SUB/431138710/carriers-push-e-911-lawsuit-in-court-despite-winning-deadline. Retrieved 2010-11-18.
  7. ^ a b "FCC Report to Congress on the Deployment of E-911 Phase II Services by Tier III Service Providers" (PDF). Federal Communications Commission. April 1, 2005. http://hraunfoss.fcc.gov/edocs_public/attachmatch/DOC-257964A1.pdf. Retrieved 2010-11-18.
  8. ^ "In the Matter of Federal-State Joint Board on Universal Service, Report to Congress, Docket 96-45". FCC. April 10, 1998. p. 42. http://www.fcc.gov/Bureaus/Common_Carrier/Reports/fcc98067.pdf.
  9. ^ OAG.state.tx.us (2005-03-22). "Attorney General Abbott Takes Legal Action To Protect Internet Phone Customers". Press release. http://www.oag.state.tx.us/oagnews/release.php?id=850. Retrieved 2010-11-18.
  10. ^ "Why Does the FCC Treat VoIP as the Ugly Duckling, Techdirt July 25, 2006". Techdirt.com. 2006-07-25. http://www.techdirt.com/articles/20060725/1216203.shtml. Retrieved 2010-11-18.
  11. ^ a b Gross, Grant (August 26, 2005). "FCC extends VoIP E911 deadline". PCWorld.com. http://www.pcworld.com/resource/article/0,aid,122322,pg,1,RSS,RSS,00.asp. Retrieved 2010-11-18.
  12. ^ "IP-Enabled Services : E911 Requirements for IP-Enabled Service Providers" (PDF). FCC. May 19, 2005. http://hraunfoss.fcc.gov/edocs_public/attachmatch/FCC-05-116A1.pdf. Retrieved 2010-11-18.
  13. ^ Pulver, Jeff (July 24, 2006). "A Little Rant on the Ongoing Mis-application of CALEA and E911 and Universal Service on Voice Applications and Some Ironic, Illogical Results". Jeff Pulver Blog. http://pulverblog.pulver.com/archives/005082.html. Retrieved 2010-11-18.
  14. ^ Cannon, Robert. "VoIP Definition :: FCC :: Interconnected VoIP :: CFR". Cybertelecom.org. http://www.cybertelecom.org/voip/definition.htm#int. Retrieved 2010-11-18.
  15. ^ Currier, Bob (2010-06-21). "Intrado Evolution of the PSAP Experience – Slide 0" (PDF). http://www.intrado.com/assets/documents/Annual_2004_NENA_Conf_VoIPforPSAP_final.pdf. Retrieved 2010-11-18.
  16. ^ Meer, Stephen; Nelson, Michael (May 2004). "Intrado Next Generation Needs" (PDF). http://www.intrado.com/assets/documents/PSAP%20Issues%20Whitepaper.pdf. Retrieved 2010-11-18.
  17. ^ "Intrado Emergency Calling Services" (PDF). http://www.intrado.com/assets/documents/VoIP%20with%20background.pdf. Retrieved 2010-11-18.
  18. ^ Nuechterlein, Jonathan E.; Weiser, Philip J. (2005). Digital Crossroads: American Telecommunications Policy in the Internet Age. p. 222. http://books.google.com/books?id=tZPgvnoVNMkC&pg=PA222#v=onepage&q&f=false.
  19. ^ "Answering the Call for 911 Emergency Services in an Internet World". Voice on the Net Coalition. January 2005. p. 4. Archived from the original on 2005-01-23. http://web.archive.org/web/20050123043804/http://www.nena9-1-1.org/VoIP_IP/VONCoalition9-1-1whitepaper0105.pdf.
  20. ^ "VoIP :: 911 :: Regulation". Cybertelecom.org. http://www.cybertelecom.org/voip/911reg.htm. Information on NET Act and FCC proceeding implementing legislation.

External links


Courtesy of Wikipedia!

Call Validation as a requirement in getting a MSC go LIVE! November 29, 2010

Posted by admin in : ALU, AT&T , add a comment

Performing call validation is an important task in getting a Mobile Switching Center (MSC) go live.

Each calls being done should pass certain requirement and must be 100% completion rate.

There are different call scenarios being done and the following are examples of the kind of calls:

  1. International
  2. National
  3. Local
  4. Operator
  5. CALEA
  6. E911
  7. Special Services

The basic requirement and tools in performing these task are as follows:

  1. Test Phone (i.e. Samsung Rugby a837)
  2. SIM Cards
    • Local SIM
    • Roaming SIM
    • International SIM
  3. Test Plan

For more details on this article send your comment by clicking add a comment.

ALU UMTS CORE Engineer (SME) July 18, 2010

Posted by admin in : ALU, AT&T , 3comments

I am now in Billings, Montana as the ALU SME for their 3G-MSC product line. My job covers the onsite support for AT&T Mobility – Billings MSC.

I am responsible for the markets of Montana and Wyoming. I will be mentoring local technicians in the Operations, Administration, Maintenance and Provisioning of ALU LCP, MGW, MSN, DACs and other related equipment in Billings MSC.

Billings MSC is located in the corners of 2nd Avenue and 30th Streets. Below is a corner shot of the building.

att billings bldg 2

A little note about Billings, Montana.


Billings, Montana – a vibrant community known for its quiet neighborhoods and bustling business districts. With many community groups and recreational and cultural activities, we offer something for the entire family. 
In Billings, you will experience many services that enhance our community’s quality of life. We invite you to visit and see for yourself!


Yell. County Pop:

Billings Pop:

Trade Area:

Healthcare, Energy, Financial, Engineering, Hi-Tech, Ag, Largest coal reserves in USA

SE Montana, Yellowstone Nat. Park is S, Glacier Nat. Park is N, SW are the Tetons, E is the Custer Battlefield. Hike, Bike, Fish, Ski 10 Golf courses, 57 Municipal parks

University, Liberal Arts College, College of Technology

Real Estate:
Housing Avg – $170,000, Commercial land $8-10 PSF estimate

State incentive grant funds, State workforce training grant, low interest – fixed rate long term capital and infrastructure loans. SBA 504 Program, Revolving Loan funds

Arena seats 10,000, Minor league baseball, football, rodeos, Performing arts and community theatres, Opera, symphony, major museums, National entertainment – on the circuit between Seattle and New York

See you later AT&T July 5, 2010

Posted by admin in : ALU, AT&T , add a comment

alu logo

I had a major decision made these couple of weeks. I am now joining Alcatel Lucent this July 2010.

I will be a SME for ALU for their customer in the North West region. I will be supporting a major customer for its new market.

I will blog more in a few weeks until I arrive in the market.

See you later AT&T……….

Defending AT&T June 2, 2010

Posted by admin in : Apple, Local News and Events , add a comment

Steve Jobs introducing the iPad in January (Photo by Justin Sullivan/Getty Images)

Steve Jobs said:

“They’re doing pretty good in some ways and in others they could do better. We meet with them once a quarter. Remember, they deal with way more data traffic than anyone else. And they’re having trouble. But they have the fastest 3G network , and they’re improving. I wish they were improving faster. I’m convinced that any other network, had you put the iPhone on it, would have had the same problems.”

Don’t Count on a Verizon iPhone May 29, 2010

Posted by admin in : Local News and Events , add a comment

by David Goldman
Friday, May 28, 2010

It’s that time of year again: The weather is getting warmer, Apple‘s (Nasdaq: AAPL -News) annual Worldwide Developers Conference is just around the corner, and rumors about the iPhone coming to Verizon (NYSE: VZNews) are sprouting up.

Don’t believe it, Verizon fans. It’s unlikely that Steve Jobs will announce a Verizon tie-up when he gets on stage at the WWDC event on June 7.

The rumors have been swirling around for years because an Apple-Verizon partnership seems to make sense for both parties.

The top reason consumers who are in the market for an iPhone decide to pass is AT&T‘s (NYSE: T- News) 3G network problems, which are notorious in New York and San Francisco, according to a CFI Group study. Meanwhile, Verizon has built up its reputation as the “most reliable network.” Also, Verizon’s 93 million wireless customers would present a huge opportunity for Apple to grow its customer base.

Yet there are some fundamental reasons why a deal isn’t imminent.

Different Networks

Verizon’s network runs on a wireless standard called CDMA, which is incompatible with AT&T’s GSM network. It’s not impossible to offer phones on both networks — Research In Motion(Nasdaq: RIMMNews) sells BlackBerry phones on every major U.S. network. But it wouldn’t necessarily make economic sense for Apple.

For one, Apple has proudly advertised that consumers can make calls and surf the Web simultaneously on the iPhone, but Verizon’s CDMA network can’t support that feature.

Secondly, Verizon is set to roll out its 4G network later this year, and AT&T will unveil its 4G network in 2011. Those networks will be on a new universal, global standard called LTE, making a 4G/LTE iPhone much more cost-effective for Apple and easier to sell around the world. That would make next year or even 2012 a more likely timeframe for debuting a Verizon iPhone.

And suppliers haven’t given any indication that Apple is building a CDMA phone, according to Jagdish Rebello, principal analyst of communication systems at iSuppli.

AT&T’s Exclusivity Contract

Apple has a five-year exclusivity deal with AT&T, according to court documents, making it unlikely that the iPhone could come to Verizon before 2012.

Many analysts said nothing is set in stone and speculated that the terms could have been renegotiated.

“No one has a good handle on how long that exclusivity deal runs, but those contracts usually last 90 days to six months,” said Josh King, general counsel at Avvo.com and former senior corporate development executive at AT&T Wireless.

But one big indication that AT&T’s contract will continue for a while is its sweet 3G pricing deal for the iPad.

AT&T offers unlimited 3G access for the iPad on a contract-free basis for an average of about $22 a month. Because those sales only account for 15% of AT&T’s data revenue, according to data tracker Trefis, it may be part of a bigger strategy.

“There is speculation that AT&T is offering attractively priced 3G data plans … as part of a broader deal with Apple to maintain iPhone exclusivity for longer than the original agreement,” Trefis said in a recent analyst note.

“AT&T is our exclusive partner in the U.S. and we’re very happy with that,” said an Apple spokeswoman but she would not comment on Apple’s plans to sell the iPhone on other carriers.

Verizon Might Not Want the iPhone

When Apple was searching for a network to carry its iPhone in 2007, Verizon was widely reported to have balked at Apple’s demands to take a share of the company’s revenue.

Verizon said it would be able to handle the iPhone on its network, but wouldn’t comment on its interest in carrying the iPhone specifically.

“The Verizon Wireless network is optimized for maximum efficiencies and … we can mange the growth,” a Verizon spokeswoman said. “We pride ourselves on having an array of smart phones on several different operating systems.”

Recently, Verizon appears to be shrugging off the iPhone by going all-in with Google(Nasdaq: GOOGNews). Verizon’s past two flagship phones have been Google Android-based phones, and the company is working with Google to launch a tablet to compete with Apple’s iPad.

Verizon also couldn’t have made Apple too happy after launching a scathing “iDon’t, Droid Does” campaign, in which the company went after all of the iPhone’s deficiencies. And in a separate campaign, Verizon poked fun at Apple’s “there’s an app for that” slogan when it went after AT&T’s 3G network with its “there’s a map for that” ad.

“There’s a lot for Verizon to consider, including revenue sharing and how much the iPhone would fit in with what the company is doing now,” said Ramon Lamas, mobile device analyst at IDC. “But right now, they’re all about Google.”

Copyrighted, CNNMoney. All Rights Reserved.

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